Spatio-temporal variations of a meandering channel morphodynamics: A study along the Kaljani River in Bhuchungmari-Moamari Section of North Bengal Dooars, West Bengal (India)


  • Mantu Das Junior Research Fellow (UGC), Department of Geography & Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur, Dist.-Darjeeling, West Bengal, Pin-734013, India
  • Dr. Snehasish Saha Assistant Professor, Department of Geography & Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur, Dist.-Darjeeling, West Bengal, Pin-734013, India



Morphodynamic, Meandering stream, Radius of meandering bend, Meander-bend curvature, GIS, Kaljani River


Rivers being the most dynamic and natural engines receive the maximum outcome of process-form activities over space and time. Displacement and shifting of course of the alluvial channels over the lower gradients result into severe bed-bank scouring activities temporally. River Kaljani within the neo tectonically active zone of North Bengal plains is an example of temporal variations of high sinuosity and braiding over the softer lithology. The present work is focusing on a temporal study from 1970 to 2019. The SOI Topographical map of 1:50,000 scales has been the base layer along with temporal satellite imageries (1990, 2000, 2010 and 2019). The schematization has followed digitization, rectification and overlaying of conformal layers extracted from the USGS website under UTM Projection system and WGS of 1984 datum for north 45 zones under GIS platform. Multi-temporal satellite data identified serious course changes of the selected reach of lower segment of Kaljani River. The rectified multi-spectral bands are used to make the NDWI for identification of the water content on earth surface followed by selective morphometric analysis e.g. sinuosity index, braided index and roundness of curvature  to access the spatio-temporal changes accomplishing some derivative mathematical equations. Descriptive statistics viz. mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), skewness and kurtosis were used and explained maximum course oscillations. The authors tried to examine the fact for six temporal frames i.e. 1970, 1990, 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2019 and received high sinuosity of all categories. Conclusively the work claims to set a documentary approach to examine the morphodynamics of an alluvial channel of Sub-Himalayan foothills.

Author Biographies

Mantu Das, Junior Research Fellow (UGC), Department of Geography & Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur, Dist.-Darjeeling, West Bengal, Pin-734013, India

Mr. Mantu Das (M.A, M.Phil.) is a Ph.D. Research Scholar and working as Junior Research Fellow (UGC) in the Department of Geography & Applied Geography, University of North Bengal. He has completed his master’s degree in Geography from University of Calcutta, Ballygunge campus in 2017. Earlier he was professionally engaged as a Research Assistant (RA) in Cultural Research Institute (CRI), B.C.W and T.D. Department, Government of West Bengal (2018-2019). He specialized in Advanced Cartography and has a lot of interest in Fluvial Geomorphology, Quaternary Geomorphology, Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing and GIS. He has already published 11 research papers, 1 edited book volume and has presented research papers in National and International Conference and Seminar in India.

Dr. Snehasish Saha, Assistant Professor, Department of Geography & Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur, Dist.-Darjeeling, West Bengal, Pin-734013, India

Dr. Snehasish Saha (M.A, Ph.D.) studied Geography in the undergraduate level and completed Post Graduate in Geography and Applied Geography from North Bengal University. His specialization was Agricultural Geography at the Undergraduate level and Fluvial Geomorphology at the Post Graduate level. He achieved 1st class 1st position in both UG and PG levels. He was conferred upon university medals for both UG and PG levels and Bidhuranjan Adhikary memorial medal for securing first class first position at PG level. He was recipient of UGC JRF award for twice. Presently, he is an Assistant Professor at the Dept. of Geography & Applied Geography, University of North Bengal since 2009 and supervising Ph.D. Research Scholars and M.Phil. Scholars. He has been working in the field of River Geomorphological studies and has published about 40 research papers in different National and International journals of his own and collaborative works with his Research Scholars. He has completed two University assisted Research Projects and he is carrying one DSTBT, WB assisted research project too. He has supervised two Ph.D. research scholars and two other ongoing Ph.D. research works are under his supervision and also supervised two M. Phil. scholars. He has been supervising one Junior Research Fellow under Research Project sponsored by DSTBT, West Bengal. He is the member of different academic societies like The Deccan Geographer, Hill Geographers (NEHU), Bangiyo Bhugol Mancha, Indian institutes of Geomorphologists etc. He has guided two UGC-SAP inducted students for small research works. He has been one of the editorial members of 07 SAP (UGC) book volumes (edited) since 2010 to 2019 and also worked as one of the editorial members of the department’s editorial volume, ‘Geographical Thoughts’. He completed his doctoral thesis in Geomorphology taking the case of Bank Erosion of River Ganga. He has published many research articles of his own and co-authored capacities in different editorial volumes and journals. He has participated in various national, international and regional level conferences, seminars and workshops etc. His future targets are to work in different fields of Geomorphology and Geoinformatics.


Ali, P. Y., Jie, D., Khan, A., Sravanthi, N., Rao, L. A., & Hao, C. (2019). Channel migration characteristics of the Yamuna River from 1954 to 2015 in the vicinity of Agra, India: A case study using remote sensing and GIS. International Journal of River Basin Management, 17(3), 367-375.

Aswathy, M. V., Vijith, H., & Satheesh, R. (2008). Factors influencing the sinuosity of Pannagon River, Kottayam, Kerala, India: An assessment using remote sensing and GIS. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 138(1-3), 173-180.

Bagchi, K., & Mukherjee, K. N. (1983). Diagnostic survey of west Bengal (North). Department of Geography, University of Calcutta.

Bhatta, B. (2011). Remote Sensing and GIS (Second Edition). Oxford University press.

Brice, J. C. (1964). Channel patterns and terraces of the Loup Rivers in Nebraska. US Government Printing Office.

Chang, H. H. (1984). Analysis of river meanders. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 110(1), 37-50.

Das, N. G. (2017). Statistical methods. McGraw Hill Education (India) private limited.

David, M., Labenne, A., Carozza, J. M., & Valette, P. (2016). Evolutionary trajectory of channel planforms in the middle Garonne River (Toulouse, SW France) over a 130-year period: Contribution of mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix). Geomorphology, 258, 21-39.

Dey, S., & Mandal, S. (2019). Assessing channel migration dynamics and vulnerability (1977–2018) of the Torsa River in the Duars and Tal region of eastern Himalayan foothills, West Bengal, India. Spatial Information Research, 27(1), 75-86.

Dixon, S. J., Smith, G. H. S., Best, J. L., Nicholas, A. P., Bull, J. M., Vardy, M. E., ... & Goodbred, S. (2018). The planform mobility of river channel confluences: Insights from analysis of remotely sensed imagery. Earth-Science Reviews, 176, 1-18.

District Disaster Management plan. Alipurduar district published by District disaster management authority. March 2020.

Furbish, D. J. (1988). River-bend curvature and migration: How are they related?. Geology, 16(8), 752-755.;2

Hossain, W., Das, S., & Dasgupta, S. (2019). Hydro-Geomorphic Analysis of a Meandering Bend of the Ichhamati River at Hugle-Mathpara Region in North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal. Journal of Indian Geomorphology, 7, 29-41.

Howard, A. D., & Knutson, T. R. (1984). Sufficient conditions for river meandering: A simulation approach. Water Resources Research, 20(11), 1659–1667.

Hudson, P. F., & Kesel, R. H. (2000). Channel migration and meander-bend curvature in the lower Mississippi River prior to major human modification. Geology, 28(6), 531-534.

Kumar, B. A., Gopinath, G., & Chandran, M. S. (2014). River sinuosity in a humid tropical river basin, south west coast of India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 7(5), 1763-1772.

Kummu, M., Lu, X. X., Rasphone, A., Sarkkula, J., & Koponen, J. (2008). Riverbank changes along the Mekong River: remote sensing detection in the Vientiane–Nong Khai area. Quaternary International, 186(1), 100-112.

Leopold, L. B., Wolman, M. G., Miller, J. P., & Wohl, E. (2020). Fluvial processes in geomorphology. Dover Publications.

Leopold, L. B. (1994). A View of the River. Harvard University Press.

Lillesand, T. M., Kiefer, R. W., & Chipman, J. W. (2015). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation (7th Edition). Wiley

Li, L., Lu, X., & Chen, Z. (2007). River channel change during the last 50 years in the middle Yangtze River, the Jianli reach. Geomorphology, 85(3-4), 185-196.

Mandal, A. C., Patra, P., Majumder, R., Ghosh, D. K., & Bhunia, G. S. (2018). Evaluating meander shifting dynamics (1977–2017) of the Bhagirathi river course in Murshidabad District, West Bengal, India. Spatial Information Research, 26(1), 33-45.

Magesh, N. S., Jitheshlal, K. V., Chandrasekar, N., & Jini, K. V. (2013). Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India. Applied Water Science, 3(2), 467-477.

Morisawa, M. (1985). River - Forms and Process. Longman, London.

Mueller, J. E. (1968). An introduction to the hydraulic and topographic sinuosity indexes. Annals of the association of American geographers, 58(2), 371-385.

Mukherjee, R., Bilas, R., Biswas, S. S., & Pal, R. (2017). Bank erosion and accretion dynamics explored by GIS techniques in lower Ramganga river, Western Uttar Pradesh, India. Spatial Information Research, 25(1), 23-38.

Randle, T. J. (2004). Channel migration model for meandering rivers (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center).

Raghunath, H. M. (2006). Hydrology: Principle, Analysis, Design (revised second edition). New age International (P) limited.

Reddy, M. A. (2008). Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (Third Edition). BSP, 1-453.

Rudra, K. (2018). Rivers of the Tarai–Doors and Barind Tract. In Rivers of the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (pp. 27-47). Springer, Cham.

Saha, P. & Basu, P. (2013). Advanced practical geography-a laboratory manual. Books and allied (P) limited, Kolkata.

Sylvester, Z., Durkin, P., & Covault, J. A. (2019). High curvatures drive river meandering. Geology, 47 (3): 263-266.

Williams, G. P. (1986). River meanders and channel size. Journal of hydrology, 88(1-2), 147-164.

Xu, H. (2006). Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery. International journal of remote sensing, 27(14), 3025-3033.

Yang, C., Cai, X., Wang, X., Yan, R., Zhang, T., Zhang, Q., & Lu, X. (2015). Remotely sensed trajectory analysis of channel migration in Lower Jingjiang Reach during the period of 1983–2013. Remote Sensing, 7(12), 16241-16256.




How to Cite

Das, M., & Saha, S. (2023). Spatio-temporal variations of a meandering channel morphodynamics: A study along the Kaljani River in Bhuchungmari-Moamari Section of North Bengal Dooars, West Bengal (India). RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary, 8(3), 114–131.