Spatio-temporal variations of a meandering channel morphodynamics: A study along the Kaljani River in Bhuchungmari-Moamari Section of North Bengal Dooars, West Bengal (India)
Keywords:Morphodynamic, Meandering stream, Radius of meandering bend, Meander-bend curvature, GIS, Kaljani River
Rivers being the most dynamic and natural engines receive the maximum outcome of process-form activities over space and time. Displacement and shifting of course of the alluvial channels over the lower gradients result into severe bed-bank scouring activities temporally. River Kaljani within the neo tectonically active zone of North Bengal plains is an example of temporal variations of high sinuosity and braiding over the softer lithology. The present work is focusing on a temporal study from 1970 to 2019. The SOI Topographical map of 1:50,000 scales has been the base layer along with temporal satellite imageries (1990, 2000, 2010 and 2019). The schematization has followed digitization, rectiﬁcation and overlaying of conformal layers extracted from the USGS website under UTM Projection system and WGS of 1984 datum for north 45 zones under GIS platform. Multi-temporal satellite data identified serious course changes of the selected reach of lower segment of Kaljani River. The rectified multi-spectral bands are used to make the NDWI for identification of the water content on earth surface followed by selective morphometric analysis e.g. sinuosity index, braided index and roundness of curvature to access the spatio-temporal changes accomplishing some derivative mathematical equations. Descriptive statistics viz. mean, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), skewness and kurtosis were used and explained maximum course oscillations. The authors tried to examine the fact for six temporal frames i.e. 1970, 1990, 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2019 and received high sinuosity of all categories. Conclusively the work claims to set a documentary approach to examine the morphodynamics of an alluvial channel of Sub-Himalayan foothills.
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