The Nexus among University Student Experience, Engagement, and Academic Success within Online Learning Environment




Student Experience, Student Engagement, Student’s Academic Success, online learning environment


This study investigates the complex interplay among student experience, engagement, and academic success in online learning. Its primary goal is to understand how the quality of student experience influences their engagement and academic achievements. The research followed a rigorous four-phase approach, starting with a thorough literature review to establish a strong theoretical foundation. Pre-validated constructs and measurement items were selected to suit the nuances of online learning and the diverse student population in Vietnamese universities. The core of the study involved administering a structured questionnaire to 300 volunteer students from various universities and academic fields in Vietnam. After data collection, a meticulous data purification process was conducted, followed by statistical analysis using Smart PLS 4.0 software. The results highlight the essential role of a positive student experience in promoting increased student engagement and, consequently, improved academic success. These findings have significant implications for Vietnamese universities, emphasizing the need for educator development, holistic student support, digital access, and data-driven interventions to enhance the educational experience.

Author Biographies

Hoai Thu Le, Hanoi University of Science and Technology

Hoai Thu Le got her Bachelor of English from Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam. She obtained a master of Educational leadership and management from Latrobe University, Australia. Now, she is an officer at the Department of Quality management, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam.

Thanh Trung Pham, East Asia University of Technology

Thanh Trung Pham received his Bachelor of Chinese from Wuhan University, China. He obtained a master of Chinese from Hanoi University, Vietnam. Currently, he is a lecturer of Chinese language study at the Faculty of Tourism, East Asia University of Technology, Vietnam.


Akter, S., D'Ambra, J., & Ray, P. (2011). Development and validation of an instrument to measure user perceived service quality of mHealth. Information & Management, 48(6), 210-217.

Amirault, R. J. (2012). Exploring the adoption and implementation of educational technology in higher education institutions. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 12(4), 70-78.

Anderson, C. A. (2016). Mobile technology and online student engagement: A review of the literature. Online Learning, 20(3), 148-161.

Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2006). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 43(5), 431-445.

Astin, A. W. (1999). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Development, 40(5), 518-529.

Brown, A. (2016). Engagement in Online Learning. Journal of Interactive Learning, 27(3), 142-156.

Brown, A. (2017a). Academic Achievement in Online Learning. International Journal of E-Learning, 32(1), 65-80.

Brown, A. (2017b). Motivation in Online Learning. International Journal of E-Learning, 30(3), 145-160.

Choi, I., Glassman, M., & Cristol, D. (2017). ICT skills for college students: Comparing outcomes in a traditional classroom with a technology-enhanced counterpart. Computers & Education, 104, 1-13.

Clark, S., & Turner, H. (2020)b. Time Management in Online Learning. International Journal of Educational Technology, 33(2), 78-92.

Clark, S., & Turner, H. (2020a). Assessment Performance and Academic Success in Online Learning. International Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3), 145-160.

Cohen, J. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Conley, C. S., Durlak, J. A., & Kirsch, A. C. (2013). A meta-analysis of the impact of universal and indicated preventive technology-delivered interventions for higher education students. Prevention Science, 14(5), 474-487.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer Science & Business Media.

Englund, C., Olofsson, A. D., & Price, L. (2017). Teaching with technology in higher education: Understanding conceptual change and development in practice. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(1), 73-87.

Evans, T., & Baker, R. (2015). Learning Environments and Academic Growth. E-Education Research, 18(4), 77-89.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 382-388.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109.

Garcia, E. (2014a). Student-Instructor Interaction in Online Courses. Journal of Distance Education, 27(2), 33-48.

Garcia, E. (2014b). Time Management and Academic Success in Online Courses. Journal of Distance Education, 30(1), 57-73.

Garcia, J. (2017). Student experiences in online courses: A review of online education research. Online Learning, 21(4), 19-35.

Gronemus, J., et al. (2010). Complementary methods for research in education. Routledge.

Hair Jr, J. F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107-123.

Hayden, M. C., & Lam, T. C. M. (2007). The academic profession and institutional reform in higher education: The case of Vietnam. Higher Education, 53(6), 757-789.

Johnson, M., & Anderson, L. (2015a). Resource Utilization in Online Learning. eLearning Research Quarterly, 18(4), 63-78.

Johnson, M., & Anderson, L. (2015b). Self-Efficacy and Academic Success in Online Learning. eLearning Research Quarterly, 21(2), 89-105.

Kahu, E. R. (2013). Framing student engagement in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 38(5), 758-773.

Kaware, A., & Sain, A. (2015). Barriers and strategies for effective technology integration in k-12. Tech Trends, 59(2), 41-45.

Kaware, R., & Sain, P. (2015). Information technology trends in higher education. International Journal of Computer Applications, 113(1), 16-20.

Kim, D., & Nguyen, Q. (2018). Interaction in Online Education. Online Learning Journal, 22(1), 34-48.

Kinchin, I. M. (2012). Social practices and dynamic management. Higher Education, 63(6), 743-755.

Le, T. N. (2019). The impact of online learning on higher education in Vietnam. In Higher Education in the Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. 155-170.. Springer.

Le, T. T. (2019). E-learning in Vietnamese higher education: Trends, challenges, and solutions. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14(7), 119-133.

Lee, J., & Choi, H. (2020). Community in Online Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 31(3), 92-104.

Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2011). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249-262.

Linder-VanBerschot, J. A., & Summers, J. J. (2015). Technology integration in higher education: An analysis of faculty self-reported barriers and incentives. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1), 161-198.

Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students' time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 405-410.

Nguyen, T. T. (2015). The challenges of online teaching in Vietnam: Lecturers' perspective. In International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering. 331-342. Springer.

Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218.

Patel, S. (2019). Technology in Online Learning. Journal of Digital Education, 24(2), 59-73.

Pham, N. D., & Fry, C. V. (2004). Vietnam's higher education reform agenda: The unfinished business. Higher Education Policy, 17(4), 393-414.

Pham, T. T., & Fry, N. (2004). Influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Vietnamese higher education. Comparative Education, 40(1), 5-29.

Pham, T. T., & Ho, K. H. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for online education in Vietnam. In The Impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific. 149-164. Palgrave Macmillan.

Pham, T., & Ho, A. D. (2020). Online learning performance and students' readiness: The mediating role of learner characteristics. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 52(2), 139-154.

Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.

Plant, E. A., Ericsson, K. A., Hill, L., & Asberg, K. (2005). Why study time does not predict grade point average across college students: Implications of deliberate practice for academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(1), 96-116.

Popenici, S. A. (2013). Changing demographics and online education. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 255-271.

Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231.

Redecker, C. (2017). European framework for the digital competence of educators: DigCompEdu. Publications Office of the European Union.

Saldaña, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2016). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. Routledge.

Smith, A., & Anderson, M. (2018). Social media use in 2018. Pew Research Center.

Smith, D. J., & Anderson, K. T. (2016). Digital technologies for teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education. In The Palgrave Handbook of Asia Pacific Higher Education 121-141. Palgrave Macmillan.

Smith, J. (2019a). Online Class Participation and Engagement. Journal of Online Learning, 24(2), 87-102.

Smith, J. (2019b). Online Learning and Academic Success. Journal of Online Education, 25(3), 112-128.

Stallman, H. M. (2010). Psychological distress in university students: A comparison with general population data. Australian Psychologist, 45(4), 249-257.

Stover, A. M., & Wallace, A. (2017). Digital literacy in undergraduate medical education: A case study of curriculum change. JMIR Medical Education, 3(1), e3.

Tamim, R. M., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P. C., & Schmid, R. F. (2011). What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4-28.

Thomas, L. (2000). Building student engagement and belonging in higher education at a time of change: Final report from the What Works? Student Retention & Success Programme. Paul Hamlyn Foundation.

Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89-125.

Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2017). Understanding the relationship between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education: A systematic review of qualitative evidence. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(3), 555-575.

Tran, L. T., & Nguyen, T. (2020). Online education in Vietnam during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, 12(3), 111-126.

Trigwell, K. (2010). Relational interdependence between teaching and research: A framework for investigating higher education. International Journal for Academic Development, 15(1), 13-28.

Weinstein, C. E., Acee, T. W., & Jung, J. (2011). Self-regulation and learning strategies. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2011(126), 45-53.

Westera, W. (2015). Gamification in higher education: A literature review. Contemporary Engineering Sciences, 8(19), 1609-1616.

Williams, R. (2018a). Resource Utilization and Academic Success in Online Courses. Online Education Journal, 24(4), 152-168.

Williams, R. (2018b). Collaboration in Online Learning. Online Education Journal, 21(1), 45-59.

Zepke, N. (2018). Understanding student engagement: Identification of undergraduate students' psychosocial needs in order to increase levels of engagement. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(6), 1224-1237.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45(1), 166-183.




How to Cite

Le, H. T., & Pham, T. T. (2024). The Nexus among University Student Experience, Engagement, and Academic Success within Online Learning Environment. RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary, 9(1), 1–12.