RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm <p>RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary (RRIJM) is an international Double-blind peer-reviewed [refereed] open access online journal. Too often a journal’s decision to publish a paper is dominated by what the editor/s think is interesting and will gain greater readership-both of which are subjective judgments and lead to decisions which are frustrating and delay the publication of your work. RRIJM will rigorously peer-review your submissions and publish all papers that are judged to be technically sound. Judgments about the importance of any particular paper are then made after publication by the readership (who are the most qualified to determine what is of interest to them).</p> <p>Most conventional journals publish papers from tightly defined subject areas, making it more difficult for readers from other disciplines to read them. RRIJM has no such barriers, which helps your research reach the entire scientific community.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Title: </strong>RESEARCH REVIEW International Multidisciplinary Research Journal</li> <li>ISSN: <strong>2455-3085 (Online)</strong></li> <li>Crossref DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.31305/rrijm"><strong>10.31305/rrijm</strong></a></li> <li>Frequency of Publication: <strong>Monthly</strong> [12 issues per year]</li> <li>Languages: <strong>English/Hindi/Gujarat</strong> [Multiple Languages]</li> <li>Accessibility: <strong>Open Access</strong></li> <li><strong>Peer Review Process: </strong>Double Blind Peer Review Process</li> <li><strong>Subject: </strong>Multidisciplinary</li> <li><strong>Plagiarism Checker: </strong>Turnitin (License)</li> <li><strong>Publication Format: </strong>Online</li> <li><strong>Contact No.: </strong>+91- 99784 40833</li> <li><strong>Email: </strong>editor@rrjournals.com</li> <li><strong>Website: <a href="https://old.rrjournals.com/">https://old.rrjournals.com/</a></strong></li> <li><strong>Address: </strong>15, Kalyan Nagar, Shahpur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380001</li> </ul> <p><strong>Key Features of RRIJM</strong></p> <ul> <li>Journal was listed in <strong>UGC</strong> with <a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/pdfnews/5283580_UGC-Cancelled-List.pdf"><strong>Journal No. 44945 (Till 14-06-2019)</strong></a></li> <li>Journal Publishes online every month</li> <li>Online article submission</li> <li>Standard peer review process</li> </ul> en-US RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary 2455-3085 Populism, Media and Elections in Zambia: The case of the Patriotic Front in the 2011 and 2016 elections https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/6 <p>This paper interrogates the intermingling of populist politics and the media in Zambia. It analyses populist tendencies the country’s 2011 and 2016 presidential elections. The examination of the 2011 elections considers this coming together of populist Patriotic Front (PF) party figures and the media through the lens of The Post Newspaper, representing ‘old’ media. The 2016 elections examination focuses on alternative media, particularly looking at how the PF utilised popular music and social media, to communicate its populist ideas. The analysis shows that the PF, with and without their populist founder Michael Sata, managed to maintain close ties with the media for their political success. Later, they were willing to utilise and harness the potential of alternative media to meet their objectives in 2016. The paper however warns that the merging of media with populism is a danger that heavily compromises the ability of the media to serve the public as they should.</p> Basil Hamusokwe Elastus Mambwe Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 01 12 Gender role and Decision-Making Power of Sahariya Tribe’s Women in Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/7 <p>The Sahariya tribe of the Bundelkhand region is considered one of the most backward, side-lined, and vulnerable tribes in the country. The present paper investigates the gender role of Sahariya women in terms of their participation in the decision-making process and simultaneously elaborates their socio-economic and socio-cultural status. The major findings state that Sahariya women are relatively more active in the community than their male counterparts. Despite sharing the dual burden, the study revealed that the autonomy and decision-making power was confined to minor household issues only.</p> Anjana Singh Rajpoot Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 13 24 An Article on Growth of Smart Beta Fund Investment in Indian Financial Market https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/8 <p>In 21st century people want each and every gadget and tool to be smart So do they need some smart investment strategies. This article is all about smart beta investment strategies which is combination of both active and passive management strategies. It also Focuses on factors, types growth, pros and cons of Smart Beta Funds. Main aim here is to clarify the concept of Smart beta and how it has been adapted in India.</p> Charmy Thacker Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 25 27 Dilemma of Development: Impact of Small Landholding Size on Economic Development with Special Reference to Scheduled Caste Population in Azamgarh https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/9 <p>Small-scale farming is important as it is the chief provider of livelihood to poor people, especially in a developing country like India. Thus, investments in increasing farm productions from small and intensively cultivated land are important for reducing global poverty. Based on primary survey, landholding size of Scheduled Caste population in different blocks of Azamgarh district were analysed for this study. The study shows that SC farmers still face economic deprivation in the form of small farm size that is detrimental to their social and economic growth.</p> Neeraj Singh Azizur Rahman Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 28 32 Impact of participation of women in Self Help Groups and their empowerment: A study on the women from vulnerable delta region of West Bengal https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/14 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> To examine the relationship between participation in Self Help Groups (SHGs) and the overall socio- economic empowerment of women. <strong>Results:</strong> The comparative study covering 234 women representing functional and non-functional SHGs highlighted that the poor and vulnerable women often become inactive. A significant relationship was found between women’s active participation in SHGs and its impact on women’s perception of their rights and gender stereotypes, household decision making, and participation in other development activities. Women did access finance, though in a limited scale, due to the fear of repayment and lack of opportunities. Although the ability to take action differs in both categories of SHGs, women continue to experience domestic violence. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Convergent effort needs to be undertaken to integrate gender equality and access to finance; to facilitate the process of empowerment of women through an inclusive method of forming, sustaining, mentoring and training the most vulnerable women in SHGs.</p> Sujata Mullick Anoop Khanna Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 33 42 Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Yojana for the Last People of India : Objectives, Features and Benefits https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/15 <p>The schemes of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay ji have been established for the development of the people of entire India. And the Government of India is determined for their acid. All the plans are for the golden and development of India for the multi-dimensional purpose. And the information about these schemes is very important for the youth of every class, people of particular community. So that by taking advantage of them, everyone can be taken forward towards social development. Through his schemes, providing employment to the unemployed youth of India, providing training for self-employment, providing housing, providing proper electricity system, improving education and health system, increasing opportunities for comprehensive development and all other schemes are to be benefitted. The main objective of these schemes is to reduce urban and rural poverty by increasing livelihood opportunities through development, skill development and other measures.</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language</strong></p> <p>पंडित दीनदयाल उपाध्याय जी की योजनाएँ संपूर्ण भारतवर्ष के लोगो के विकास के लिए स्थापित की गई है । एवं भारत सरकार इनके अम्ल के लिए दृढ़ संकल्पित है। सभी योजनाएँ बहु आयामी उद्वेश्य के लिए भारत के स्वर्णिम एवं विकास हेतु अग्रसर है। और इन योजनाओं की जानकारी प्रत्येक वर्ग के युवकोंए विशेष समुदाय के लोगो के लिए अत्यंत आवश्यक है। ताकि इनका लाभ उठाकर हर एक को सामाजिक विकास की ओर अग्रसारित किया जा सके। उनकी योजनाओं की माध्यम से भारत के युवा बेरोजगार को रोजगार उपलब्ध करानेए स्वरोजगार हेतु प्रशिक्षण देने आवास उपलब्ध करानेए समुचित बिजली व्यवस्था उपलब्ध कराने शिक्षा एवं स्वास्थय व्यवस्था सुधारनेए व्यापक विकास के अवसरों को बढ़ाने एवं तमाम अन्य योजनाओं के द्वारा सबों को लाभांवित किया जाना है। इन योजनाओं का मुख्य उद्वेश्य विकास कौशल विकास एवं अन्य उपायों के माध्यम से आजीविका के अवसरों में वृद्वि कर शहरी और ग्रामीण गरीबी को कम करना है।</p> Jyoti Kumari Amar Kant Singh Rajendra Thakur Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 43 49 The Legend of Himalayan Motherlode-Historical, Cultural and Economic Significance of T he Padder Blue Sapphire https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/18 <p>One of the purest forms of aluminium oxide, the Padder Sapphire, a blue gem variety of the mineral corundum, is considered to be the hidden wealth of Kishtwar region. Found in the upper reaches of the remote village of Padder, it is supposed to be of the best quality in the world, second to none. At once, unknown and unexploited, found in abundance with the locals, it came to be known as the wealth of Padder from the 19th century onwards, when it was gifted by General Zorawar Singh to Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Jammu and Kashmir. At present, the Padder sapphire is one of the most expensive gemstones in the world. However, it is known for more than its sheer and brilliance. It has, associated with it, deep historical, cultural, astrological and traditional legends and beliefs which lend to its significance. This paper, thus, makes an attempt to study the historical, cultural and economic significance of the Padder sapphire and bring to the fore the many facets of the Padder sapphire.</p> Jyoti Parihar Haqiqat Chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 50 56 Automatic Mask Detection at Public Places https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/19 <p>COVID-19's fast spread has resulted in tens of millions of individuals becoming infected around the world. Because there is no specific cure for COVID-19, wearing masks has proven an effective technique of preventing transmission and is mandatory in most public places, resulting in an increase in demand for automatic real-time mask detection systems to replace manual reminders. However, there are just a few investigations on the detection of face masks. The performance of mask detectors must be improved urgently. However, there have been few studies on the detection of face masks. Mask detector performance must be improved immediately. The Properly Wearing Masked Face Detection Dataset (PWMFD) was proposed in this paper, and it includes 9205 photos of mask-wearing samples divided into three groups. Squeeze and Excitation (SE)-YOLOv3, a mask detector with roughly balanced effectiveness and efficiency, was also proposed. by incorporating the SE block into Darknet53, I was able to incorporate the attention mechanism and obtain the relationships between channels, allowing the network to focus more on the relevant feature. To increase the stability of bounding box regression, I used GIoUloss, which can better express the spatial difference between predicted and ground truth boxes. The significant foreground-background class imbalance was solved via focal loss. In addition, I used image augmentation techniques to boost the model's robustness on the challenge. In comparison to YOLOv3, SE-YOLOv3 outperformed YOLOv3 and other state-of-the-art detectors on PWMFD, achieving a higher 8.6 percent mAP while maintaining a comparable detection speed.</p> Aiman Ahmed Mohammed Al-Gamal Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 57 62 Regional Imbalance in the Levels of Development in Bagalkot District- Karnataka: A Spatial Analysis https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/21 <p>After independence India has made remarkable progress in the socio-economic status of the people. But the attainment of this has spread highly uneven among the urban and rural areas. Regional imbalances are common phenomenon in the world, which occurred across different continents, countries and regions in different extent and India is not exception in this context. This phenomenon spread among inter-regions, inter-states and intra-states n India. This resulted into uneven development in the country. This process of imbalance is not exception in Bagalkot district. There are three major rivers namely the Krishna, the Malaprabha and the Ghataprabha and their tributaries flow in the study area and play important role in the development of the district. However, the study reveals that there exists a wide imbalance in the level of socio-economic development in the region. In view of this, an attempt has been made in this research work to evaluate and compares temporal growth and spatial pattern of disparities in the levels of socio-economic development at block level in Bagalkot district. Correlation coefficient technique has been applied to understand the correlation between different factors which are responsible for widening the regional imbalance. To analyses the regional imbalance of six taluks of Bagalkot district, 23 social, economic and demographic indicators have been considered. The present paper is based on secondary information based on which the socio-economic imbalance among the taluks of the district is made with the help of composite development index for two time of point i.e. 1997 and 2017 data. It has been observed that the social indicator values varied from 11 to 27. The study period witnessed Bagalkot, Badami, Hunagund and Jamkhandi are the three taluks which represent high social development, whereas low (&lt; 11) social development was observed in Bilagi taluk. The outstanding causes for this backwardness are are, less number of education institutes, communication centers, adult education centers, health centers, family planning centers, recreational centers etc. The observed values of economic development are ranging between 19 and 35. It had been observed in only two taluks viz Bilagi and Hungund were found in high economic development, and low economic development was recorded in Jamakhandi taluk. Bagalkot, Mudhol and Badami taluks registered under relatively developed range. Lastly to understand the overall development, the observed values of socio-economic, economic and infrastructure indicators are added and derived a separate composite index.</p> L.T. Nayak B.D. Ajjodi Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 63 74 Non-Formal Environment al Education and NGO-School Link for Environmental Awareness and Protection https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/25 <p>The protection and improvement of human environment is a major issue which affects the wellbeing of people and economic development throughout the world. In this rapidly changing man-made environment the need of restoring the originality of natural environment becomes a deep concern for the whole mankind. Lack of awareness, proper knowledge among the common people regarding the conservation of environment and its resources can lead to different socio-ecological and environmental problems. Unless the environmental education is reached to the grass root level and cover all sections of people no efforts on environmental protection can be expected. Therefore environmental education is designed as a lifelong process covering all sections of people and it is expected that environmental education will provide a fundamental understanding of bio-physica1 environmental problems confronting man, how these problems can be solved with sound knowledge and attitude. The life-long environmental education is known as the non-formal environmental education and it is designed for any age group, participating in social, economic, cultural development of the community. The present study tries to discuss the importance of NGOs and its linkage with the secondary schools in environmental awareness and protection as the N0n-governmental Organizations constitute an integral part of non-formal environmental education.</p> Kabita Choudhury Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 75 81 Environmental Governance in India: A Good Governance Perspective https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/26 <p>At the outset good governance aims at providing responsive, transparent, clean and people-friendly administration. Implicitly accountability, both political and administrative, is one of essential elements of multi-faceted concept of good governance. This paper attempts to approach and view realization of good governance in environmental governance in India.</p> Manish Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 82 85 Turkish folk dances https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/28 <p>Folk-music is a very simple and intuitive science of music. It expresses the customs, way of life, food and sentiments of a particular country. Turkish folk music says the same thing. Tarkan finds a lot of mention in Turkish folk dances. In fact, Tarkan started taking special interest in folk-dances from the year 1928. The year 1941 was important in terms of changing the direction of Turkish folk dance. After the establishment of Praja Bhavan in the year 1950, the performance of folk dances had taken the form of a rich culture. Even more so, with folk-dance audiences now present in Ankara and Istanbul, folk dances were considered a new form of urban entertainment in the 1970s. In Zebeki's time there was a need to identify the national origin of every dance, but that need is no longer there. Dances were now seen as a national art form. The experience of Turkish folk dances reveals a new meaning of the word 'national'. This is different from the old prevailing servant definition of the word national. The folk dances elected in the 1970s and 1980s were national because they were amalgamated with Turkish territories. In other words, the folk dances that spread throughout urban Turkey in the 1970s were national in nature, while Tarkan-Zebeki envisioned them to be national.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>लोक-संगीत, संगीत की बहुत सरल व सहज विद्या होती है। यह देश-विशेष के रीति-रिवाज, रहन-सहन, खान-पान और भावनाओं की अभिव्यक्ति करती है। तुर्की का लोक-संगीत भी यही कहता है। तुर्की के लोक नृत्यों में तरकन का काफी उल्लेख मिलता है। वास्तव में तरकन सन् 1928 से ही लोक-नृत्यों में विशेष रूचि रखने लगे थे। 1941 का वर्ष तुर्की के लोक-नृत्य की दिशा बदलने की दृष्टि से महत्वपूर्ण रहा। सन् 1950 में प्रजा-भवन होने के बाद लोक-नृत्यों का प्रदर्शन एक समृद्ध संस्कृति का रूप ले चुका था। इससे भी बड़ी बात यह थी कि अब अंकारा और इस्तांबुल में लोक-नृत्य के दर्शक मौजूद थे, 1970 के दशक में लोक-नृत्यों को नए तरह का शहरी मनोरंजन माना गया। जेबेकी के समय में हर नृत्य का राष्ट्रीय मूल पहचानने की जरूरत होती थी, किन्तु वैसी जरूरत अब नहीं रही। नृत्यों को अब राष्ट्रीय कला के रूप में देखा जाने लगा। तुर्की के लोक-नृत्यों का अनुभव बतलाता है कि ‘राष्ट्रीय’ शब्द का नया मतलब क्या है। यह राष्ट्रीय शब्द की पुरानी प्रचलित सेवक परिभाषा से भिन्न है। सन् 1970 और 1980 में चुने गए लोक-नृत्य राष्ट्रीय इसलिए थे, क्योंकि वे तुर्की के प्रदेशों से मिल-जुलकर बने थे। दूसरे शब्दों में जो लोक-नृत्य सन् 1970 में पूरे शहरी तुर्की में फेले, वे स्वाभाव से ही राष्ट्रीय थे, जबकि तरकन-जेबेकी ने उनके राष्ट्रीय होने की कल्पना ही की थी।</p> Rita Dhankar Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 86 89 Geotourism Potentiality of the Rarh Region of West Bengal: A Geographical Outlook https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/29 <p>Geotourism is currently being considered as one of the most promising sectors of tourism and is being practiced by many countries rich in this kind of tourism resource. India, as well as one of its easternmost states- West Bengal is blessed with hundreds of such tourism resources. It is being considered as a bright name in the geotourism map of India, drawing few domestic and international visitors. Through the present study, the author has attempted to make an inventory of notable geotourism destinations of Rarh region of West Bengal while assessing their tourism potentiality, strength, opportunity and threat applying the SWOT-AHP analysis of Saaty (1990). It has been inferred that this region has great potential to become a geotourism hotspot in the near future if sustainable planning measures are taken.</p> Tushar Mandal Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 90 97 Detection of the Change in the Morphology of the Courses of the River Ganga Using Satellite-derived Data: A Case Study Area https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/30 <p>This study seeks to examine the detection of course change in one of the major rivers of India, that is the Ganga, between the period of 1980 to 2020 and utilizes satellite driven data to demonstrate the visibility of shifting in its course. The purpose of study area is to find out the change detection of the river course. The channel shifting of the river course has been used to demonstrate the historical change in Landsat MSS, TM, ETM, and OLI/TIRS satellite images in the decades of 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020. The study exhibits several reasons responsible for and lead to this shift, such as erosion problems and changing characteristics of the Ganga from Rampurghat to Chunar at different cross-section site points. This research area has been divided into six cross-sections, namely, XS-1, XS-2, XS-3, XS-4, XS-5, and XS-6. We attempt to examine how the river’s shape and position have witnessed a change during the 1980–2020 period via using remote sensing and GIS methods. We have identified that the course line of the Ganga has demonstrate a shift via using five types of satellite imagery in the above-mentioned period. The process of channel shifting has included an erosional and a depositional development occurred due to infrastructure damage by sedimentation, flood and changing river course. The Ganga course has shifted towards the south and the north direction places which as a result leads to village erosion. The major aspects of this study have a direct interaction with the physical and socio-cultural environment from upstream to downstream in cross-section. The course change detection of the study has been taken in the context of the river management and planning for future prevention of agricultural land, kuccha houses, food, and economic loss to farmers.</p> Mukesh Kumar A. R. Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 98 112 Marriage Rituals in Kol Tribe https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/31 <p>Marriage is a sacred bond in which the bride and groom, taking their clan gods and fire as witnesses, commit to live together in each other's happiness and sorrow and in future life. In the Kol tribe, marriages are performed by many small rituals. Mandap Chhajan and Mayan Puja, Matrika Puja or Maati Mangal, the ritual of offering oil, Parchan, Janvasa, Dwarchar or Dwar Puja, Oli Bharai, Lava Parswai, Sindoordan, Mangal Phere, Kanyadaan, foot worship and Khobar. But in the present scenario, the role of the pandit in the marriage ceremony is visible from beginning to end. In the evening, men and women gather under the pavilion in the courtyard for entertainment, singing and singing with the help of musical instruments like dholak etc. Koldahka dances while playing. The groom resolves the bride to keep the promise. Always give advice to live happily with each other. After the marriage at the young age of the first bride, the gauna was performed in the third, fifth or seventh year when the bride became an adult. But now after becoming an adult, due to the marriage taking place, the cow is also done immediately. Remarriage among tribes is not difficult nor is it considered wrong. Yet divorce or divorce is not encouraged in any tribe.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language</strong></p> <p>विवाह एक पवित्र बंधन होता है जिसमें अपने कुल देवताओं तथा अग्नि को साक्षी मानकर वर तथा कन्या एक दूसरे के सुख-दुःख तथा भावी जीवन में साथ रहने के लिए वचनबद्ध होते है। कोल जनजाति में विवाह अनेक छोटी-छोटी रस्मों द्वारा सम्पन्न किया जाता है। मण्डप छाजन तथा मायन पूजा, मातिृका पूजन या माटी मंगल, तेल चढ़ाने की रश्म, परछन, जनवासा, द्वारचार या द्वारपूजा, ओली भराई, लावा परसवाई, सिन्दूरदान, मंगल फेरे, कन्यादान, पाँव पुजाई और कोहबर।शायद पहले इन संस्कारों को बिना पण्डित के सम्पन्न किया जाता रहा होगा किन्तु वर्तमान परिदृश्य में विवाह संस्कार में पण्डित की भूमिका शुरू से अन्त तक दिखाई देती है।शाम के समय कोल पुरुष तथा महिलाएँ मनोरंजन के लिए आंगन में मण्डप के नीचे एकत्रित होकर ढोलक आदि वाद्य यंत्रों की सहायता से गाते व बजाते हुए कोलदहका नृत्य करते है। वर वधू को वचन निभाने के लिए संकल्पित करते है। एक दूसरे के साथ सदैव सुखपूर्वक जीवनयापन की सलाह देते हैं। पहले वधू की छोटी उम्र में विवाह के बाद तीसरे, पांचवे या सातवें वर्ष जब वधू वयस्क हो जाती थी गौना सम्पन्न किया जाता था। परन्तु अब वयस्क होने के उपरान्त विवाह होने के कारण तुरन्त ही गौना भी करा लिया जाता है। जनजातियों में पुनर्विवाह में कठिनाई नहीं होती है और न ही इसे गलत माना जाता है। फिर भी किसी भी जनजाति में विवाह विच्छेद या तलाक को प्रोत्साहन नहीं दिया जाता है।</p> Om Prakash Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 113 119 The Development of Islāmic Culture and Civilization in Kashmīr and the Contribution of Muslim Ṣūfīs during the Medieval Times https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/32 <p>Kashmīr has a long unique structure and identity due to its geographical beauty, natural resources, and traditional spiritual ethos since antiquity. In ancient times, although most Kashmīris were followers of Buddhism and Hinduism, in addition to these traditional religions, there was also an influential group ascetic mystics called Rishis in Kashmīr. They devoted their entire lives to abstinence (Nafs Kashi) and various spiritual struggles in order to control their desires of carnal self (Mujāhida’s). From the beginning of medieval times which is known as the golden age of Islāmic civilization and culture, the message of Islām spread rapidly throughout the world. In this regard, the group of Ṣūfīs played vital role in the whole Islāmic world. In Kashmīr, as in the rest of the subcontinent, Ṣūfīs made significant contributions to the propagation of Islām. The present article will examine the historical events of the medieval times, which are considered a milestone in the spread of Islām and the promotion of Islāmic civilization in Kashmīr. Moreover, the works of those Ṣūfī masters will be reviewed who have sacrificed a lot and done commendable works on the history of Kashmīr.</p> Tajamul Ahmad Sheikh Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 120 125 Death Rites in Kol Tribe https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/33 <p>Death is the ultimate ultimate truth of life, one who has come in this world has to go one day or the other. Like other communities of Baghelkhand region, people of Kol tribe also perform death rites, but some specialties still exist in the traditional way. Kol Jana believes that death happens to the body, the soul is immortal. According to the tradition, salvation can be achieved only after performing the funeral rites, that is why the ashes (flowers) are immersed in holy rivers like Ganga or Narmada. Food, water is arranged for the dead soul and water is kept in a pitcher in the Peepal tree. Sutak is considered in the family for ten days. The person who donates fire always carries iron so that the phantom souls cannot do any wrong. On the tenth day, the dead soul is bid farewell by law, after which they become ancestors and they are recognized as God. As the case may be, household items are donated and food is provided to the family and relatives.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language</strong></p> <p>मृत्यु जीवन का अंतिम परम सत्य है इस संसार में जो आया है उसे एक न एक दिन जाना है। बघेलखण्ड क्षेत्र के अन्य समुदायों की भांति कोल जनजाति के लोग भी मृत्यु संस्कार सम्पन्न करते है किन्तु कुछ विशिष्टताएँ आज भी पारम्परिक रूप से विद्यमान है। कोल जन की मान्यता है कि मृत्यु शरीर की होती है आत्मा अमर है। जीव का परम्परानुसार अंत्येष्टि संस्कार करने के बाद ही मुक्ति मिल सकती है इसीलिए गंगा या नर्मदा जैसी पवित्र नदियों में अस्थि (फूल) विसर्जित किया जाता है। मृत आत्मा के लिए भोजन, पानी की व्यवस्था की जाती है तथा पीपल के वृक्ष में घड़े में जल भर कर रखा जाता है। दस दिन तक परिवार में सूतक माना जाता है। अग्निदान करने वाला व्यक्ति सदैव लोहा लिए रहता है जिससे प्रेत आत्मा किसी प्रकार का अनिष्ठ न कर सकें। दसवें दिन विधि विधान से मृत आत्मा की विदाई की जाती है इसके बाद वह पितर हो जाते हैं और उनको देवतुल्य मान्यता प्राप्त होती है। यथास्थिति गृहस्थी की वस्तुएँ दान दी जाती हैं और परिवार तथा सगे सम्बन्धियों को भोजन कराया जाता है।</p> Om Prakash Ashok Ahirwar Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 126 129 Indian Society and Women https://rrjournals.com/index.php/rrijm/article/view/36 <p>The condition of women had become very pathetic in ancient times, especially when the society changed from matriarchal to patriarchal society, since then women were marginalized and this is the reason that from ancient to modern times, women were treated as second-class citizens. being seen. In modern times, when India was independent, the situation had worsened further. Even after 73 years of independence, women are seen only as a responsibility and not as a complete citizen. In the traditional structure of Indian society, more emphasis is being given to women only to live under the protection of son, husband and father, whereas in the Indian Constitution, both men and women have been given equal rights. Even after getting equal rights, women are very backward socially, politically and economically. In Indian society, women are still being seen as a commodity, a commodity, and a toy for entertainment. Due to which today women are becoming victims of incidents of molestation, domestic violence, assault, rape etc. on a large scale. There is a dire need to change this attitude being adopted towards women so that women can also step towards paying attention to their overall development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language</strong></p> <p>प्राचीन काल में महिलाओं की स्थिति अत्यंत दयनीय हो गई थी खासकर जब समाज मातृप्रधान से पितृसत्तात्मक समाज में परिवर्तित हुआ तभी से महिलाएं हाशिए पर चली गई और यही कारण है कि प्राचीन काल से लेकर आधुनिक काल तक महिलाओं को दोयम दर्जे के नागरिक के रूप में ही देखा जा रहा है। आधुनिक काल में जब भारत परतंत्र था उस समय तो स्थिति ओर ज्यादा खराब हो गई थी ।आजादी के 73 वर्षों के बावजूद भी महिलाओं को केवल एक जिम्मेदारी के रूप में देखा जाता है न कि एक संपूर्ण नागरिक के रूप में। भारतीय समाज के परंपरागत ढांचे में केवल महिलाओं को पुत्र ,पति और पिता के संरक्षण में जीवन यापन करने पर अधिक बल दिया जा रहा है जबकि भारतीय संविधान में औरत और पुरुष दोनों को एक समान अधिकार दिए गए हैं । समान अधिकार मिलने के बाद भी सामाजिक, राजनीतिक और आर्थिक रूप से महिलाएं काफी पिछड़ी हुई है। भारतीय समाज में महिलाओं को आज भी एक वस्तु ,माल दिल बहलाने वाला खिलौना के रूप में ही देखा जा रहा है। जिसके कारण आज बड़े स्तर पर छेड़खानी ,घरेलू हिंसा, मारपीट बलात्कार इत्यादि की घटनाओं की महिलाएं शिकार हो रही हैं। महिलाओं के प्रति अपनाए जा रहे इस नजरिए नजरिए को बदलने की सख्त जरूरत है ताकि महिलाएं भी अपने संपूर्ण विकास की तरफ ध्यान देने की ओर कदम बढ़ा पाए।<strong><br></strong></p> Anju Copyright (c) 2022 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 6 12 130 133