RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary <p>RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary (RRIJM) is an international Double-blind peer-reviewed [refereed] open access online journal. Too often a journal’s decision to publish a paper is dominated by what the editor/s think is interesting and will gain greater readership-both of which are subjective judgments and lead to decisions which are frustrating and delay the publication of your work. RRIJM will rigorously peer-review your submissions and publish all papers that are judged to be technically sound. Judgments about the importance of any particular paper are then made after publication by the readership (who are the most qualified to determine what is of interest to them).</p> <p>Most conventional journals publish papers from tightly defined subject areas, making it more difficult for readers from other disciplines to read them. RRIJM has no such barriers, which helps your research reach the entire scientific community.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Title: </strong>RESEARCH REVIEW International Multidisciplinary Research Journal</li> <li>ISSN: <strong>2455-3085 (Online)</strong></li> <li>Crossref DOI: <a href=""><strong>10.31305/rrijm</strong></a></li> <li>Frequency of Publication: <strong>Monthly</strong> [12 issues per year]</li> <li>Languages: <strong>English/Hindi/Gujarat</strong> [Multiple Languages]</li> <li>Accessibility: <strong>Open Access</strong></li> <li><strong>Peer Review Process: </strong>Double Blind Peer Review Process</li> <li><strong>Subject: </strong>Multidisciplinary</li> <li><strong>Plagiarism Checker: </strong>Turnitin (License)</li> <li><strong>Publication Format: </strong>Online</li> <li><strong>Contact No.: </strong>+91- 99784 40833</li> <li><strong>Email: </strong></li> <li><strong>Old Website: <a href=""></a></strong></li> <li><strong>New Website: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> </a></strong></li> <li><strong>Address: </strong>15, Kalyan Nagar, Shahpur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380001</li> </ul> <p><strong>Key Features of RRIJM</strong></p> <ul> <li>Journal was listed in <strong>UGC</strong> with <a href=""><strong>Journal No. 44945 (Till 14-06-2019)</strong></a></li> <li>Journal Publishes online every month</li> <li>Online article submission</li> <li>Standard peer review process</li> </ul> RR Publication en-US RESEARCH REVIEW International Journal of Multidisciplinary 2455-3085 <p>This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license<a href=""> Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).</a></p> Bio Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Lantana camara Seed Extract and its Antibacterial Potential <p>In this research, a Lantana camara seed extract was employed for easily and sustainably synthesis of silver nanocomposites. Aqueous silver ions reduced when exposed to seed extract, which led to the biogenesis of silver nanoparticles. The reduced silver nanoparticles were examined utilizing a multiple of methods, including transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Absorption peak at 415 nm in the UV-vis absorption spectral analysis of the synthesized silver nanoparticles provided evidence that silver nanoparticles had formed. The FCC crystalline structure of the produced L. camara leaf extract silver nanoparticles is revealed by X-ray diffraction spectra analysis. The development of Gram-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-negative Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is repressed by green synthetic silver nanoparticles made from L. camara seed extract. The antibacterial activity that has been observed may have significant uses in biology, pharmacy, and economics.</p> Snehal Patel N. K. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 01 07 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.001 Prospective Development in Co-Operative Finance <p>A number of issues of policy are emerging in co-operative development in India. One of these is the problem arising out of the concept of the crop loan and its definition and implementation. It should be noted that the crop loan emerged as a device which take co-operative credit a step beyond the stage which it had reached previously. At the earlier stage, whether explicitly related to the value of owned land or not, the credit of a cultivator depended largely on his real assets and the loan was made for a twelve-month period and was renewable. There was no explicit linking of the loan or its size to the purpose of utilisation; also fairly severe limits on loans to individuals and to societies as a whole were laid down. The result, almost universally, was that in no case could the credit extended by co-operative societies to an individual member serve his needs fully. The co-operative credit system could not, in the circumstances, hope to replace, even theoretically, the moneylender-trader system.</p> Chhatra Pal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 08 11 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.002 Role of Law and Judiciary in Social Transformation in India: A Need for a Changing Society <p>Any deviation from the accepted or established way of life is referred to as social transformation. The phrase ‘social change’ describes alterations to society as a whole. According to Maclver, society is a "network of social interactions." These social interactions alter as a result of social change. Law and social transformation are two very different ideas that place a strong emphasis on social problem studies, changes in those problems, and their resolution through judicial and legislative processes. Following the 1950 implementation of the Indian Constitution, India became a "Republic" and a country with a federal system. Multiculturalism is more evident than it used to be in this country, which has several states segregated according to language and culture. The Constitution set the stage for the ‘Rule of Law,’ effective government, and multiculturalism, yet reflected the will of the populace. According to the adage “Law Changes Society,” society must adapt to the law's requirements. When an anomaly occurs, it is taken before the judiciary, which then applies the principle of the rule of law to alter the current practice of law. Law has historically been seen as a vehicle for enacting social change. Through a vibrant judicial system and innovative jurisprudence that actively put both historical and contemporary wrongs to right, legal justice has gradually paved the path for social justice. While there are many tools available for bringing about change and transformation in our society for the law, none of them can be regarded as the most efficient and secure technique for the transition, as this article seeks to highlight.</p> Ausaf Ahmad Malik Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 12 26 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.003 Silver nanoparticles made from Tagetes erecta flower extract using green synthesis: Characterization methods and antibacterial activity <p>Due to its extensive applications in a variety of fields, including electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine, there is a growing commercial demand for nanoparticles. This study uses the Tagetes erecta flower to create and characterise silver nanoparticles. Utilizing UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray differentiation, and TEM examination, the produced nanoparticles were characterised. After 5 hours of incubation, the reaction mixture took on a brownish-gray colour and had an absorbance peak that is typical of Ag nanoparticles at 412 nm. Analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the silver nanoparticles were pure, polydispersed, and ranged in size from 10 to 40 nm. A cheap, environmentally friendly, and simple alternative to traditional methods of creating silver nanoparticles is the green synthesis approach. A cheap, environmentally beneficial, and simple alternative to traditional techniques of creating silver nanoparticles is the green synthesis strategy.</p> Priyanka Chaudhari N.K. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 27 33 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.004 Application of ARIMA model for Forecasting Daily Gold Prices in India <p>Gold is the most desired high value commodity in almost all the nations. Gold not only provides safety against financial odds but also prove to be a vital parameter for wealth of individuals, governments and central banks worldwide. Gold prices are very volatile through all the commodity exchanges among different nations. With proper forecasting risk of high volatility could be avoided and returns could be more stable. Forecasting, if done with robust modelling and accurate data can lead to precise investment planning yielding well estimated returns. Present paper exhibits forecasting of gold prices in India using ARIMA model developed by Box and Jenkins 1976. Data taken from World Gold Council website for almost 43 years on daily basis is put to use to identify and fit ARIMA model. Identified model is found to be fit and forecasting is done with very high accuracy in the present study.</p> Viraj Dhakan Yagnesh Dalvadi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 34 48 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.005 Gandhi and the Strategy of Nonviolent Resistance: A Study of Various Pre-Independence Experiments <p>Gandhi is sometimes presented in the confines of a politician. The fact is that Gandhi, before he belonged to any other perspective, was an advocate and promoter of ethics and morality. For this reason, it would be unfair to examine his ideas about politics, social reform, economic innovation and systemic change in isolation. He was in the first place in favor of moral ultimateism and on that basis it is possible to analyze his thinking, action and contribution.</p> <p>In Gandhi's style of thinking, the strategy of non-violent resistance and its means are reflected in the form of Satyagraha method. Gandhi considered life to be full of relentless struggles and gave the highest position to the method of Satyagraha in the form of individual and collective protest. Gandhi's thinking and experience developed from intelligibility. The method of non-violent resistance is a special contribution to Gandhi's politics. Gandhi himself believed that non-violent resistance is the weapon of a powerful and brave man, a non-violent resistance establishes a spiritual connection with its opponent. He instils such a belief in him that he cannot harm them without harming himself. Nonviolent resistance is the name of the spiritual and moral struggle for the victory of truth.</p> <p>The study of the strategy and techniques of Gandhi's non-violent resistance has been presented in the said research paper and the above techniques and Gandhi's experiences have been recorded. By adopting these techniques, a non-violent environment can be created in the present society.</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language:</strong></p> <p>गांधी को अनेक बार राजनीतिज्ञ की परिसीमितता में प्रस्तुत किया जाता है। वास्तविकता है कि गांधी किसी अन्य परिप्रेक्ष्य से संबंधित होने से पूर्व, नीति एवं नैतिकता के पक्षधर एवं प्रवर्तक थे। इसी कारण राजनीति, समाज सुधार, आर्थिक नवविकल्प एवं व्यवस्थात्मक परिवर्तन के विषय में उनके विचारों को एकाकी रूप में परखना अनुचित होगा। वे प्रथमतः नैतिक परमवाद के पक्षधर थे एवं उसी आधार पर उनके चिन्तन, कर्मण्यवाद एवं योगदान का विष्लेशण संभव है।</p> <p>गांधी की चिन्तन शैली में अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध की रणनीति व उसके साधन, सत्याग्रह पद्धति के रूप में परिलक्षित होते है। गांधी ने जीवन को अनवरत संघर्शों से युक्त माना एवं वैयक्तिक एवँ सामूहिक विरोध के रूप में सत्याग्रह कार्य प्रणाली को सर्वोच्च स्थान दिया। गांधी का चिन्तन एवं अनुभव बोधगम्यता से विकसित हुआ। अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध की पद्धति गांधी की राजनीति को विषेश देन है। स्वयं गांधी ने माना कि अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध षक्तिषाली और वीर मनुश्य का षस्त्र है एक अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध अपने प्रतिद्वन्दी से आध्यात्मिक संबंध स्थापित कर लेते है। वह उसमें ऐसा विष्वास उत्पन्न कर देता है कि वह बिना अपने को नुकसान पहुँचाये उनको नुकसान नहीं पहुंचा सकता। अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध सत्य की विजय हेतु किये जाने वाले आध्यात्मिक और नैतिक संघर्श का नाम है।</p> <p>उक्त शोध पेपर में गांधी की अंहिसात्मक प्रतिरोध की रणनीति एवं तकनीकों का अध्ययन प्रस्तुत किया है तथा उक्त तकनीक व गांधी के अनुभवों को लिपिबद्ध किया गया है। इन तकनीकों को अपनाकर वर्तमान समाज में अहिंसात्मक वातावरण का सृजन किया जा सकता है।</p> <p>Keywords: अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध, अहिंसात्मक प्रतिरोध के साधन, सत्याग्रह प्रकृति, साधन व साध्य की पवित्रतता।&nbsp;</p> Jitendra Kumar Soni Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 49 55 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.006 Implication of Behavioural Finance on Investor’s Financial Decision-Making <p>Global financial markets are influenced by a variety of factors, including national and global economic processes, institutional and political limits, information diffusion and accessibility, etc. However, one of the most significant aspects is the reaction and perception of the public. Behavioural finance is a system that supplements and replaces portions of conventional finance. It demonstrates the results of investor-manager interactions in financial and capital markets. As decision-making is an art for handling complex situations, investors make irrational investing decisions. Therefore, selecting a particular choice among the numerous alternatives is a distinct art. This article reviews the concepts of behavioural finance and their influence on the financial decisions of investors.</p> Aarzooben Shekh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 56 60 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.007 Reading Habit of E-Newspapers by the users during COVID-19: A case study of Bharat Ratna Sh. Gulzari Lal Nanda Library, Kurukshetra (Haryana) <p>Newspaper is one of the most important sources of getting knowledge and current affairs, that has become essential part of our life. Newspaper is extremely helpful for the students to increase their language skill and to know facts happing in the world. The present study is as questionnaire survey based, total 112 questionnaires were distributed among the users of Bharat Ratna Sh. Gulzari Lal Nanda Library and 102 filled valid questionnaires were received. Result of the study reveals that most of the user prefer to read electronic version of Dainik Tribune and Amar Ujala newspapers during COVID-19 respectively. The study also shows up that most of the users prefer to consent library to read newspaper and for preparing their competitive examination.</p> Sandhya Rani Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 61 67 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.008 Customer Satisfaction with Personal Selling of Indusind Bank <p>Banking organisations use a range of promotional techniques to attract customers. Communication and consumer appeal are supported by the various aspects of a firm’s promotional mix and the firm retains full control over the extent to which these facets are used. The many components of a company’s promotional blend aid communication and customer attraction. The firm has complete control over how many of these aspects are used. Promotional blend comprises of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion etc. The degree to which any of these features are used tends to vary by industry and is dictated by the products and services they offer. Personal selling is one of the most important factors in the banking industry. It is a sales technique whereby the sales representatives employ their skill-sets to try to close a deal. The focus of this study is to look into Indusind Bank’s personal selling activities and how they relate to customer satisfaction.</p> Tapashi Dasgupta Subit Dutta Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 68 74 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.009 Do MSMEs Create Employment? Attestation from India <p>The Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise (MSME) sector has developed as a vibrant sector of the Indian economy and is an essential engine of the economy. It contributes significantly to the growth of entrepreneurship and creates the second-largest number of job opportunities. In 2019-2020, the MSME sector will contribute considerably to the development of the Indian economy, accounting for 95 percent of industrial units with an extensive network of 63 million firms, 29 percent of GDP, and nearly 49.8% of exports employing roughly 111 million people. Because the global economy is slowing, it should emphasize growing the MSME sector to improve job opportunities, particularly for young people. These MSMEs create employment possibilities and aid in industrialization in rural areas, reducing income inequality among inhabitants. MSMEs contribute considerably to the development of the Indian economy through exports, domestic production, minimal investment requirements, operational flexibility, and technology-oriented firms, among other things. So, this paper has attempted to understand the role of MSMEs in providing employment opportunities and pushing toward the country's inclusive development. The data for the study has been collected from various secondary sources such as government websites, magazines, multiple reports, and newspapers. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and co-integration analysis were used in the study. The result shows, Have MSMEs created job opportunities in the economy? We used time-series data to analyze the long-term relationship and trend between the variables.</p> Rekha Akansha Jain Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 75 82 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.010 Health status of working women of Durg-Bhilai cities: an anthropometric analysis <p>Women's health has a decisive role in the socio-economic development of any region, especially in improving and enriching the standard of living of working women, their health, education and nutrition are effective steps. Thus, the main objective of the present research paper is To analyze the health status of working women of Durg-Bhilai cities of Chhattisgarh state on the basis of anthropometric studies and diseases.&nbsp; The present study is mainly based on primary data.&nbsp; Among the total selected working women in Durg-Bhilai twin cities, the health level of most working women is medium (47.42%). Comparatively, where a higher percentage of working women of low health level and higher health level was received in Bhilai city, more percentage of working women of medium health level was received in Durg city. According to the temporal analysis of the health level of working women, while the highest percentage of working women in the low health level was displayed in the year before 1980, the maximum percentage of the high health level was in the period after 2001 (47.66%) in working women.&nbsp; In contrast, a higher percentage of middle health status was found in working women (50.69%) in the period 1981-2000. Thus, while there was a continuous decrease in the low health level of working women in different periods, there was a trend of continuous increase in the high health level.</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language:</strong></p> <p>किसी भी क्षेत्र के सामाजिक-आर्थिक विकास में महिलाओं के स्वास्थ्य की निर्णायक भूमिका होती है, विशेषकर कार्यशील महिलाओं के जीवन स्तर को उन्नत एवं समृद्ध करने में उनके स्वास्थ्य, शिक्षा तथा पोषण की व्यवस्था कारगर कदम होते हैं। इस प्रकार प्रस्तुत शोधपत्र का मुख्य उद्देश्य, मानवमितीय अध्ययन एवं बीमारी के आधार पर छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य के दुर्ग-भिलाई नगरों की कार्यशील महिलाओं के स्वास्थ्य स्तर का विश्लेषण करना है। प्रस्तुत अध्ययन मुख्यतः प्राथमिक आँकडों पर आधारित है। दुर्ग-भिलाई जुड़वा नगरों के कुल चयनित कार्यशील महिलाओं में सर्वाधिक कार्यशील महिलाओं का स्वास्थ्य स्तर मध्यम (47.42ः) है। तुलनात्मक दृष्टि से निम्न स्वास्थ्य स्तर एवं उच्च स्वास्थ्य स्तर की कार्यशील महिलाओं का अधिक प्रतिशत जहाँ भिलाई नगर में प्राप्त हुआ, वहीं मध्यम स्वास्थ्य स्तर की कार्यशील महिलाओं का अधिक प्रतिशत दुर्ग नगर में प्राप्त हुआ। कार्यशील महिलाओं के स्वास्थ्य स्तर के कालिक विश्लेषण के अनुसार, निम्न स्वास्थ्य स्तर में कार्यशील महिलाओं का जहाँ सर्वाधिक प्रतिशत वर्ष 1980 के पूर्व के कालिक वर्ष में प्रदर्शित हुआ, वहीं उच्च स्वास्थ्य स्तर का अधिकतम प्रतिशत वर्ष 2001 के बाद के कालिक वर्ष (47.66ः) में कार्यशील महिलाओं में प्राप्त हुआ। इसके विपरीत मध्यम स्वास्थ्य स्तर का उच्च प्रतिशत वर्ष 1981-2000 के कालिक वर्षों में कार्यशील महिलाओं (50.6ः) में प्राप्त हुआ। इस प्रकार विभिन्न कालिक वर्षों में कार्यशील महिलाओं के निम्न स्वास्थ्य स्तर में जहाँ निरन्तर कमी हुई, वहीं उच्च स्वास्थ्य स्तर में निरन्तर वृद्धि की प्रवृत्ति पाई गई।</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> कार्यशील महिला, मानवमितीय अध्ययन, स्वास्थ्य स्तर, कालिक विश्लेषण।</p> Shivendra Bahadur Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 83 93 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.011 Agricultural Labour Status and Problems in India: An Analytical Study <p>The concept of “agricultural labourer” refers to all those engaged in different agricultural activities like preparation of the soil, ploughing operations, sowing, planting, weeding, harvesting etc. Agricultural labourers made up a significant portion of the workforce. They are generally landless and rely on wage labour in agriculture to survive. Problem like droughts, uncertain monsoons and seasonal periodical nature of agriculture, agricultural labourers often face the problems of unemployment and underemployment, eventually getting trapped by poverty. The scientific agricultural implements, high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, increased irrigational potential would not have shown the desired progress without the assistance of agricultural labourers. Unfortunately, the agricultural labourers are deprived of their legitimate share in the returns. Further, the rural labourers engaged in household enterprises have also been affected as the new industrial products and displaces them from their traditional activities. Female rural labour has also been affected in as much as their wages are lower than those of the male labourer. Rural labour poverty- stricken as they are compelled to take loan from money-lenders and big farmers for meeting their domestic needs. In the wake of their inability to repay the loan amount, rural labour is reduced to miserable status of “bonded labour”- serving as servitors in the houses of landlord - cum - moneylenders. It is also important to note that rural labour often migrate from one place to other in search of employment. It indicates uncertainty of employment at a particular place and at a particular point of time. Majority of the rural population belonging to the categories of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other depressed sections of the society. The problems of these sections are multifarious and peculiar in nature. The women who have been looked down upon for long have also been facing the problems in leaving their lives as agricultural labourers. These labourers are at bottom of society still now.</p> Surender Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 94 100 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.012 Academic Crisis during Covid-19: Challenges and Opportunities for the Teachers and Students <p>The Wuhan originated Covid-19 pandemic has shown the world a new direction. The abrupt advent and severe transmission of the disease trapped the world’s population within the four walls. The socio-political, economic and religious life of people gets affected in a great extent. Likewise, the global educational scenario has to go through a remarkable academic crisis soon after the closure of educational institutions across the globe. The academic crisis brought up a high disruption in the everyday schedule of academics. Teachers and students are to face number of challenges; so far academic life is concerned. Meanwhile, researches have pointed out that, although, teachers and students faced numerous challenges with respect to classroom activities, laboratory work, field work, teacher-taught and peer relationship, etc. the introduction of virtual learning platforms provide varieties of new learning experiences and novel opportunities like individualized learning, self-regulations, and ICT competencies. No doubts, the pandemic opens doors for learning varieties of skills and lessons, however, several studies found digital divide and health problems are another major issues during the pandemic. This paper analyses the research done across the learning communities worldwide and attempted to generalize the circumstances faced by the academics. The paper will be benefitted for the teachers and students to manage the academic activities through the integration of technology and effective learning strategies keeping in mind the limitations of Covid-19 pandemic.</p> Harihara Bhesera Shankar Lal Bika Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 101 105 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.013 Nicholas Roerich’s Himalayas as the ‘Treasury of Spirit’ <p>Nicholas Roerich, as a historian and archeologist, explores the roots and origins of Russian culture, and that quest brings him to India. In 1900s in his art and writings he is increasingly drawn to Indian themes and subjects. The first Indian themes in Roerich’s art were, perhaps, the two illustrations to his own philosophical fairy tale narrating the story of a woman called Devassari Abuntu who professed Buddhism and lived in the company of birds and spoke their language. Meanwhile, Roerich’s interest in India deepens. He proposes to have an ancient Indian temple transported to St. Petersburg and becomes a member of the committee set up in 1909 to supervise the building of the first ever Buddhist temple in the same city, incidentally the first Buddhist temple to be ever built in Europe.</p> TaeJin Koh Alexander Pereverzev Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 106 111 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.014 The Philosophical Basis of Jawaharlal Nehru's Thought with Special Reference to Nationalism: General Analysis <p>Nehru was a great nationalist, but he did not propound any new theory of nationalism. It is evident from his article 'Unity of India' that he believed in the reality of the basic unity of India. He used to accept that despite the diversities, unity is found in the entire history of India. He was also inspired by the notion of cultural pluralism and syncretism. He was influenced by the syncretic universalism propounded by Rabindranath Tagore. He did not sympathize with the religious view of nationalism of Dayanand, Vivekananda, Pal and Aurobindo. Nehru believed that nationalism had an emotional side. Although he was skeptical, but being highly emotional and sensitive, he was greatly influenced by the romantic ideal of Bharatmata. For him, nationalism is actually a form of self-expansion. He wrote, Nationalism is essentially a collective memory of past achievements, traditions and experiences; And nationalism was never as powerful as it is today. Whenever there has been a crisis, there has been a rise of nationalist sentiment, and people have tried to get strength and consolation from their traditions. The rediscovery of the past and the nation is an astonishing progress of the present era. But nationalism also has tangible social, political and economic benefits.</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language:</strong></p> <p>नेहरू एक महान राष्ट्रवादी थे<strong>, </strong>किन्तु उन्होंने राष्ट्रवाद का कोई नया सिद्धान्त प्रतिपादित नहीं किया था। उनके लेख ’भारत की एकता’ से प्रकट होता है कि वे भारत की आधारभूत एकता की वास्तविकता में विश्वास करते थे। वे स्वीकार करते थे कि विविधताओं के बावजूद भारत के सम्पूर्ण इतिहास में एकता देखने को मिलती है। उन्हें सांस्कृतिक बहुलवाद तथा समन्वय की धारणा से भी प्रेरणा मिली थी। उन पर रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर द्वारा प्रतिपादित समन्वयात्मक सार्वभौमवाद का प्रभाव पड़ा था। उन्हें दयानन्द<strong>, </strong>विवेकानन्द<strong>, </strong>पाल और अरविन्द के राष्ट्रवाद सम्बन्धी धार्मिक दृष्टिकोण से सहानुभूति नहीं थी। नेहरू यह मानते थे कि राष्ट्रवाद के भावनात्मक पक्ष होते हैं। यद्यपि वे संशयवादी थे<strong>, </strong>किन्तु अत्यधिक भावुक और संवेदनशील होने के नाते उन्हें भारतमाता के रोमांसपूर्ण आदर्श ने अत्यधिक प्रभावित किया था। उनके लिए राष्ट्रवाद वास्तव में आत्म-विस्तार का ही एक रूप है। उन्होंने लिखा है<strong>, </strong>राष्ट्रवाद तत्वतः अतीत की उपलब्धियों<strong>, </strong>परम्पराओं और अनुभवों की सामूहिक स्मृति है<strong>; </strong>और राष्ट्रवाद जितना शक्तिशाली आज है उतना कभी नहीं था। जब कभी संकट आया है तभी राष्ट्रवादी भावना का उत्थान हुआ है<strong>, </strong>और लोगों ने अपनी परम्पराओं से शक्ति तथा सान्त्वना प्राप्त करने का प्रयत्न किया है। अतीत और राष्ट्र का पुर्नन्वेक्षण वर्तमान युग की एक आश्चर्यजनक प्रगति है। किन्तु राष्ट्रवाद से ठोस सामाजिक<strong>, </strong>राजनीतिक तथा आर्थिक लाभ भी होते हैं।</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> नेहरू, राष्ट्रवाद, माक्र्सवाद, साम्यवाद, अन्र्तराष्ट्रवाद।</p> Naresh Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 112 117 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.015 India's evolving tax system: its successes and challenges <p>The goal of this study is to critically investigate several facets of India's tax structure. Every person of the country is responsible for paying taxes. The taxation system determines the economic power of a country. Our federal tax system is divided into three levels, the Union Government, the State Governments and the Local Bodies. As the author points out, despite the fact that the Constitution clearly divides taxing authority between the national government and the state government, due to the prevalence of several types of taxes, the Indian tax system has been exceedingly complex. Various tax compliance regulations and rules, tax administration is incompetent, and several other issues. Aside from reviewing the existing literature on the subject, the purpose of this research is to track the evolution of the Indian tax system through three different periods such as taxes in ancient India, taxes during post independent India, and taxes after independent India. Although Lists 1 and 2 of the Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution clearly define the Union government's and states' taxing powers, these original tax provisions have undergone a number of revisions over the years as a result of essential constitutional amendments. This research article also makes an attempt to provide a description of direct taxes; together with ‘Income tax’, ‘Corporation tax’, ‘Wealth tax’, ‘Gift tax’, ‘Estate duty’, and ‘other taxes on capital and property’, and indirect taxes for example ‘Customs duties’, ‘Excise duties’, ‘Sales tax’, ‘Service tax’, ‘Value added tax (VAT)’, and ‘Goods and services tax (GST)’. Finally, the research paper discusses some of the most pressing difficulties and obstacles. According to Bird (1993), ‘Fiscal crisis has been proven to be the mother of tax reform’. However, such reforms are frequently impromptu and undertaken to fulfil instant revenue needs. In most instances, such reforms are not in the nature of systemic improvements to increase the tax system's long-term productivity. The evolution of a tax system to satisfy the needs of international competition has been one of the most fundamental reasons for recent tax reforms in many emerging and transitional countries (Rao 1992). The shift from a mostly centrally planned development strategy to market-based resource allocation has altered public perceptions of the state's role in development. The transition from a public to a private sector, heavy industry reigned supreme, the shift from an import-substituting industrialization approach to one based on market signals has prompted fundamental reforms in the tax system. In an open, export-driven economy, the tax system should not only raise the required funds for social and physical infrastructure, but it should also reduce distortions. As a result, to maintain worldwide competitiveness, the tax system must adapt to the needs of a market economy. When the right approaches are followed, revenue remains stable and growth in our economy is managed. Any tax that is not backed by law or exceeds the legislative authority's powers is unconstitutional. In 1994, this authority became the basis for levying a tax on some services, and the 88th Amendment to the Indian Constitution gave the federal government the ability to tax services. The internationalisation of economic operations as a result of increased globalisation gave another reason for reform. In light of the recent shift to introduce GST, this article examines the structure of the Indian tax system, its constitutional framework, and current system modifications.</p> Pintu Das Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 118 124 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.016 International Politics and Abhyudaya Patra <p>Hindi papers, especially 'Abhyudaya', by bringing international events to the public, not only clarified the foreign policy of the Congress, but also made Indians aware of the bloodshed of various nations for political selfishness, diplomacy and economic benefits. .</p> <p>The letter believed that only India had the right to decide on the internal condition of India, its relations with foreign countries and national defense etc. In 1920 AD, the most discussed in the world was about communism and the League of Nations. The capitalist countries were opposing the communist policy of Russia. On the other hand, in the name of world peace, the League of Nations was establishing its dominance over the world by forming an institution.</p> <p>Hindi letters and Abhyudaya neither supported nor opposed communism because they believed that if they did not live up to their principles, it would probably end. In view of the decision of the League of Nations and its functioning, the letter described it as an organized hypocrisy and sent a message to the suffering nations to strengthen their position.</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language:</strong></p> <p>हिन्दी पत्रों, विशेष रूप से ’अभ्युदय’ ने अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय घटनाओं को जनमानस तक पहुँचाकर न केवल कांग्रेस की विदेश नीति को स्पष्ट किया अपितु भारतीयों को राजनीतिक स्वार्थ, कूटनीति और आर्थिक लाभों के लिए विभिन्न राष्ट्र, जो रक्तपात कर रहे थे, उसका भी ज्ञान कराया।</p> <p>पत्र का मानना था भारत की आन्तरिक अवस्था, उसके विदेशों से सम्बंध और राष्ट्रीय रक्षा आदि प्रश्नों पर निर्णय लेने का अधिकार केवल भारत का था। 1920 ई0 में संसार में सबसे अधिक चर्चा साम्यवाद और राष्ट्रसंघ की ही थी। पूँजीवादी देश रूस की साम्यवादी नीति का विरोध कर रहे थे। दूसरी ओर, विश्व में शांति के नाम पर राष्ट्रसंघ संस्था बनाकर विश्व पर अपना प्रभुत्त्व कायम कर रहे थे।</p> <p>हिन्दी पत्रों और अभ्युदय ने साम्यवाद का न तो समर्थन ही किया और न विरोध क्योंकि उनका मानना था कि अपने सिद्धांतों पर खरा न उतरनें पर इसका अन्त सम्भवतः ही हो जायेगा। राष्ट्रसंघ के निर्णय और उसकी कार्यप्रणाली को देखते हुए पत्र ने उसे एक संगठित पाखंड बताया और पीड़ित राष्ट्रों को अपनी स्थिति सुदृढ़ करने का संदेश दिया।</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> साम्राज्यवाद का विस्तार<strong>, </strong>साम्यवादी विचारधारा<strong>, </strong>राष्ट्रसंघ<strong>, </strong>ब्रिटिश सरकार की अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय राजनीति</p> Asha Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 125 131 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.017 Contribution of Gandhi Philosophy in Rural Development of India: Evaluation <p>All round development of the country is possible only through rural development. Developed India cannot even be imagined without the development of villages. Rural development has been a challenge for the country after independence. A lot of efforts have also been made to ensure smooth implementation of the schemes. These facts of village development have been compulsorily accepted that only wide conscious and active public participation can become the basis of success of rural development plans. Since independence, it has been felt continuously that Panchayati Raj Institutions can prove to be a strong institutional means of ensuring public participation in the process of rural development, but the assessments done by various committees made it clear that Panchayati Raj Institutions are not able to achieve this objective to a real extent. Couldn't succeed. Therefore, the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of the Constitution marked the beginning of a new era in the context of Panchayati Raj Institutions. New forms of public participation were seen in development plans. If a general analysis of the patterns of rural development in India is done, then it is quite clear that the influence of Gandhi's philosophy is clearly visible in it. If a general analysis of the patterns of rural development in India is done, then it is quite clear that the influence of Gandhi's philosophy is clearly visible in it.</p> <p><strong>Abstract in Hindi Language:</strong></p> <p>देश का सर्वांगीण विकास ग्रामीण विकास से ही संभव है। गाँवों के विकसित हुए बिना विकसित भारत की कल्पना भी नहीं की जा सकती है। ग्रामीण विकास स्वतंत्रता के बाद देश के लिए चूनौतीपूर्ण रहा है। योजनाओं का सुदृढ क्रियान्वयन सुनिश्चित करने के लिए भी बहुत प्रयास किये गये हैं। गाँवों के विकास के इन तथ्यों को अनिवार्य रूप से स्वीकार किया गया है कि व्यापक सचेतन व सक्रिय जनसहभागिता ही ग्रामीण विकास योजनाओं की सफलता का आधार बन सकती है। आजादी के बाद से लगातार अनुभव किया गया कि पंचायतीराज संस्थाएँ ग्रामीण विकास की प्रक्रिया में जनसहभागिता को सुनिश्चित करने का सबल संस्थागत माध्यम सिद्ध हो सकती हैं किन्तु विभिन्न समितियों द्वारा किये गये आंकलनों ने यह स्पष्ट किया कि पंचायतीराज संस्थाएँ इस उद्देश्य की प्राप्ति में वास्तविक सीमा तक सफल नहीं हो सकी। इसलिए संविधान का 73 वाँ संविधान संशोधन अधिनियम से पंचायती राज संस्थाओं के संदर्भ में एक नए युग का सूत्रपात हुआ। विकास योजनाओं में जनसहभागिता के नये स्वरूप देखने को मिले। भारत में ग्रामीण विकास के प्रतिमानों का यदि सामान्य विश्लेषण किया जाये तो यह तथ्य पूर्णतः स्पष्ट है कि इसमें गाँधी दर्शन का प्रभाव स्पष्ट रूप से देखने को मिलता है। भारत में ग्रामीण विकास के प्रतिमानो को यदि सामान्य विश्लेषण किया जाये तो यह तथ्य पूर्णतः स्पष्ट है कि इसमें गाँधी दर्शन का प्रभाव स्पष्ट रूप देखने को मिलता है।</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>गाँधी दर्शन, योजनाएँ, विकास, गाँव, जनसहभागिता।</p> Rajendra Singh Solanki Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 132 136 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.018 Overview of the architecture of Mehrangarh fort with reference to Jodhpur <p>Forts have been of special importance in the architectural period of Rajasthan in India. From the rulers and vassals to the small feudal lords of this region, some kind of fortifications were built for their protection. If Rajasthan is called the land of fortifications, then there will be no exaggeration in it. Here some fort is definitely found at a distance of every ten miles. In the Ajmer-Merwada area of ​​Rajasthan, in the year 1873-74, 133 complete buildings and forts were found in the physical verification of the British Commissioner. Which have been built by the rulers of the princely states that ruled before the British administration. Rajput rulers and feudatories considered it a matter of their prestige to stay in the fort and establish their dominance over more and more forts, so the power of the king and feudal lord who had more forts was estimated by their number. During the time of Maharana Kumbha of Mewar and Rao Maldev of Marwar, most of the fort construction work was done, apart from this, more forts were built by the rulers of Chauhan and Parmar dynasty than other dynasties. were also the main means.</p> Suman Devi Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 7 7 137 140 10.31305/rrijm.2022.v07.i07.019