Effect of Glass Ceiling on the Performance of Women Employees in Service Sector

Vol-4 | Issue-01 | January-2019 | Published Online: 10 January 2019    PDF ( 371 KB )
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548822
Rekha Hitha Aranha 1; Paul Gerald Aquinas 2; Avil Terrance Saldanha 3

1Asst. Professor, Institute of Management, CHRIST ( Deemed to be University), Bengaluru (India)

2Associate Professor & Chairman, Post Graduate Department of studies and Research in Social Work, Mangalore University, Mangalore (India)

3Asst. Professor, St. Joseph’s Institute of Management, Bengaluru (India)


The term “glass ceiling” was coined by Hymowitz Carol and Schellhardt Timothy in the leading Wall Street Journal (1986) . Glass ceiling is a block for the progression of competent women employees in the organization mainly because of gender or racism. Many studies from the west confirm the existence of glass ceiling based on various constructs like the social barriers, cultural barriers, individual barriers, etc. There is no concrete evidence on this aspect in India. One of the surveys conducted by Team Lease (2017) on the staffing services, reports that more than half of the respondents have felt some kind of discrimination in their workplaces. Even with the increase in literacy level and skills among the women the percentage of women progressing upwards in their career is very small. There are not many studies that reveal the dominant factors that act as impediment for the upward movement of women at work. The researcher has used stratified random sampling by choosing respondents from entry, junior, middle and senior level of IT/ITES, Financial Institutions, Healthcare, Hospitality and Education industries from the service sector. A sample size of 400 was chosen for the study. To avoid any form of bias, data was collected from both male and female respondents. For all the constructs the Cronbach Alpha was 0.7, which stated that there was internal consistency in the statements and the questionnaire was reliable. The data was analyzed using SPSS. The exploratory factor analysis was done to explore the factors affecting glass ceiling, SIX factors were named as follows: Individual Factors, Social & Societal Factor’s, Organizational factors, Cultural Factors, Family Factors, and Gender Related Issues. Regression was used to find out the effect of the factors on the job performance of the respondents. The analysis draws conclusion that women employees can break through the glass ceiling only when positive factors having an impact on their career advancement are increased. This can be done through boosting their economic power by upgrading themselves with sufficient skills, educational qualification, improving their communication skills and having good mentors who can guide and counsel them in the organisation.

Glass ceiling, gender discrimination, factors influencing, performance, perception of employees, etc
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