Detection of the Change in the Morphology of the Courses of the River Ganga Using Satellite-derived Data: A Case Study Area
Keywords:The Ganga River Basin, Change Detection, River Morphology, Landsat Imagery, Cross-section, Channel Width, River Course Bank Line, Channel Landform, Erosion, Deposition
This study seeks to examine the detection of course change in one of the major rivers of India, that is the Ganga, between the period of 1980 to 2020 and utilizes satellite driven data to demonstrate the visibility of shifting in its course. The purpose of study area is to find out the change detection of the river course. The channel shifting of the river course has been used to demonstrate the historical change in Landsat MSS, TM, ETM, and OLI/TIRS satellite images in the decades of 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020. The study exhibits several reasons responsible for and lead to this shift, such as erosion problems and changing characteristics of the Ganga from Rampurghat to Chunar at different cross-section site points. This research area has been divided into six cross-sections, namely, XS-1, XS-2, XS-3, XS-4, XS-5, and XS-6. We attempt to examine how the river’s shape and position have witnessed a change during the 1980–2020 period via using remote sensing and GIS methods. We have identified that the course line of the Ganga has demonstrate a shift via using five types of satellite imagery in the above-mentioned period. The process of channel shifting has included an erosional and a depositional development occurred due to infrastructure damage by sedimentation, flood and changing river course. The Ganga course has shifted towards the south and the north direction places which as a result leads to village erosion. The major aspects of this study have a direct interaction with the physical and socio-cultural environment from upstream to downstream in cross-section. The course change detection of the study has been taken in the context of the river management and planning for future prevention of agricultural land, kuccha houses, food, and economic loss to farmers.